Events are being held in the Czech Republic marking the anniversary of August 21 in both 1968 and 1969. Czechoslovakia was invaded by Soviet-led troops on that date in 1968, while the following year a number of participants in demonstrations on the first anniversary were killed in clashes with Czechoslovak security forces.
The main memorial event on Wednesday will take place in front of Czech Radio, which was a focal point of defiance and violence in August 1968. Senior elected representatives and people who lived through that time are expected to attend.
The events of August 1969 are to be marked by a march from Wenceslas Square to Prague Castle organised by the group Million Moments for Democracy.
Dozens of other memorial events are also being held around the Czech Republic.
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